UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023: The UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023 has been uploaded by the exam conducting authority on the official portal. Aspirants willing to appear in the UGC NET Geography exam must analyse the official syllabus and exam pattern before commencing their preparation. The UGC NET Geography syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e. Paper A and Paper B. Paper A consists of a general aptitude paper that is common for all the subjects. Paper B is subject-specific and contains questions related to Geography topics. 

UGC NET exam are conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA) to determine candidates’ eligibility for ‘Assistant Professors and ‘Junior Research Fellowship Assistant Professors in Indian Universities and Colleges. Hence, one should check the syllabus to get insights into the chapters that can be asked in the exam. Going by past trends and analysis, the overall difficulty level of the UGC NET Geography question has been reported to be moderate. 

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In this article, we have shared the UGC NET Geography syllabus, exam pattern, preparation tips, and best books in detail.

UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023 PDF

Before applying, candidates should download the official UGC NET Geography syllabus PDF link shared below to cover all the aspects of the exam. Get the direct link to download the UGC NET Geography syllabus below:

UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023-Important Topics

The Geography Syllabus of the UGC NET exam is divided into two papers. The UGC NET Geography exam will be conducted online. In Paper 1, 50 objective-type questions will be asked for 100 marks, whereas Paper 2 comprises 100 multiple-choice questions for 200 marks. As per the UGC NET marking scheme, 2 marks will be allocated for every right answer, and there shall be no negative marking for incorrect responses in the UGC NET exam. The time to complete the exam is 3 hours, and the exam will be held without any break between the papers. Check the important NTA UGC NET Geography syllabus 2023 topics below.

Unit I – Geomorphology

Unit II – Climatology

Unit III- Oceanography

Unit IV- Geography of Environment

Unit V – Population and Settlement Geography

Unit VI- Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development

Unit VII – Cultural, Social and Political Geography

Unit VIII – Geographic Thought

Unit IX – Geographical Techniques

Unit X- Geography of India

Unit-wise UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023

The Geography syllabus for the UGC NET exam is divided into ten units. The units covered in the UGC NET Geography syllabus are Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Geography of Environment, Population and Settlement Geography, Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development, Cultural, Social and Political Geography, Geographic Thought, Geographical Techniques, and Geography of India. Let’s look at the unit-wise Geography syllabus for UGC NET in detail below:

UNIT 1: Geomorphology 

Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches) 

UNIT 2: Climatology

Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst, Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate. 

UNIT 3: Oceanography 

Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone 

UNIT 4: Geography of Environment 

Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)

UNIT 5: Population and Settlement Geography

Population Geography: Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and Geographical levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.

Settlement Geography: Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank-size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman, and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban, ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion)

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Unit 6: Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development 

Economic Geography: Factors affecting the spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), and Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.

Agricultural Geography: Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.

Industrial Geography: Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on the manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World Distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Geography and R & D) Industries.

Geography of Transport and Trade: Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.

Regional Development: Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India.

Unit 7: Cultural, Social and Political Geography

Cultural and Social Geography: Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.


Political Geography: Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Geopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Unit 8: Geographic Thought 

Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Schaefer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, man environment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism). 

Unit 9: Geographical Techniques 

Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

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Unit 10: Geography of India

Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, Geographyal, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on the Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.)

UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2023 In Hindi

यूजीसी नेट परीक्षा के भूगोल पाठ्यक्रम को दो पेपरों में विभाजित किया गया है। यूजीसी नेट भूगोल परीक्षा ऑनलाइन आयोजित की जाएगी। पेपर 1 में 100 अंकों के लिए 50 वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रकार के प्रश्न पूछे जाएंगे, जबकि पेपर 2 में 200 अंकों के लिए 100 बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्न होंगे। UGC NET अंकन योजना के अनुसार, प्रत्येक सही उत्तर के लिए 2 अंक आवंटित किए जाएंगे, और UGC NET परीक्षा में गलत उत्तरों के लिए कोई नकारात्मक अंकन नहीं होगा। परीक्षा को पूरा करने का समय 3 घंटे है, और परीक्षा प्रश्नपत्रों के बीच बिना किसी विराम के आयोजित की जाएगी। नीचे महत्वपूर्ण NTA UGC NET भूगोल पाठ्यक्रम 2023 विषयों की जाँच करें।

यूनिट I – भू-आकृति विज्ञान

यूनिट II – जलवायु विज्ञान

यूनिट III- समुद्र विज्ञान

इकाई IV- पर्यावरण का भूगोल

यूनिट V – जनसंख्या और निपटान भूगोल

इकाई VI- आर्थिक गतिविधियों और क्षेत्रीय विकास का भूगोल

इकाई VII – सांस्कृतिक, सामाजिक और राजनीतिक भूगोल

इकाई VIII – भौगोलिक चिंतन

यूनिट IX – भौगोलिक तकनीकें

यूनिट X- भारत का भूगोल

Weightage for UGC NET Geography Syllabus

Candidates should be familiar with the UGC NET Geography exam pattern to understand the question paper format, the number of questions, topic names, the marking scheme, etc., followed by officials. The exam pattern of the UGC NET Geography subject comprises two papers, i.e. Paper 1 and Paper 2. Check the paper-wise UGC NET Geography exam pattern below:



Number of Questions

Maximum Marks

Marking Scheme

Paper 1

Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Reading Comprehension, Communication, Reasoning (including Maths), Logical Reasoning, Data Interpretation, Information & Communication Technology (ICT), People & Environment, and Higher Geography System



+2 marks for the correct answer. No negative marking is applicable

Paper 2




+2 marks for the correct answer. No negative marking is applicable

How do I prepare for UGC NET Geography?

Candidates should follow the unique UGC NET Geography preparation strategy to achieve favourable results in the exam. To prepare the right strategy, they should check the latest UGC NET Geography syllabus and exam pattern to align their preparation with the actual exam requirements. Let’s discuss the best preparation tips to obtain excellent scores in the UGC NET Geography subject.

  • Go through the UGC NET Geography syllabus and exam pattern before starting the exam preparation. It will allow you to study the topics from which questions can appear in the exam.
  • Choose highly recommended books and study materials that are based on the latest format and trends.  Make sure you pick the books that cover all the topics prescribed in the syllabus for adequate preparation.
  • Solve previous year’s question papers, UGC NET sample papers, and mock tests to discover your strong and weak points and improve the weak areas for better results.
  • Create short and crisp notes when studying geography topics and revise the notes often to remember concepts for a definite period.

Best Books for UGC NET Geography Syllabus

Candidates should use the UGC NET Geography books to prepare effectively for the exam. The right study resources will help them to cover all the chapters mentioned in the UGC NET Geography syllabus. Here is the list of best books for the preparation of the UGC NET Geography subject is shared below:

  • Fundamentals of Geomorphology by R J Huggett
  • Climatology by D S Lal
  • Essentials of Oceanography by A P Trujillo and H V Thurman
  • Environmental Geography by Savindra Singh
  • Population Geography by M Hassan
  • Agricultural Geography by Majid Husain
  • A Textbook of Social and Cultural Geography by Jyotirmoy Sen
  • Geographical Thought: A Contextual History of Ideas by R D Dikshit
  • Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications by Dr B C Panda
  • India: A Comprehensive Geography by Dr D R Khullar

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