The effects of Native American relocation

In this paper, I estimate the historical migratory and fertility effects of the US Relocation Program. Between 1952 and 1973, the US federal government attempted to move Native Americans off reservations and into urban areas under the promises of financial assistance and job training. Using the variation in which cities were targeted by the program, I employ a difference-in-differences strategy and estimate that the Relocation Program significantly increased the Native American population in target cities. I also find evidence that second-generation Native American women living in cities have a substantially lower fertility rate than Native American women living on tribal land. Jointly, these findings indicate that this federal program substantially shifted the spatial distribution of the Native American population in the US throughout the 20th century.

That is from a recent paper by Mary Kopriva at University of Anchorage.  Are we allowed to consider whether those programs might have been good?  In other contexts, don’t we call this “Moving to Opportunity”?

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